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One World Nations Online. Flag of Trinidad and Tobago. Location map of Trinidad and Tobago. Background: The islands came under British control in the 19th century; independence was granted in The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing.


Trinidad and Tobagoisland country of the southeastern West Indies. It consists of two main islands—Trinidad and Tobago—and several smaller islands. Forming the two southernmost links in the Caribbean chain, Trinidad and Tobago lie close to the continent of South Americanortheast of Venezuela and northwest of Guyana.

Trinidad, by far the larger of the two main islands, has an area of about 1, square miles 4, square km. It is 7 miles 11 km from the Venezuelan coast at its nearest point and is separated from it by the Gulf of Paria and two narrow channels, where there are several small islands and rocks. Tobago, much smaller, with an area of about square miles square kmlies 20 miles 30 km to the northeast of Trinidad. Extending diagonally from southwest to northeast, Tobago is about 30 miles 50 km long and more than 10 miles 16 km across at its widest point.

Also called Bird of Paradise Island, Little Tobago was once noted as the only wild habitat of the greater bird of paradise outside of New Guinea ; however, the bird is no longer found there. Trinidad and Tobago achieved independence from the United Kingdom in and obtained membership in the Commonwealth and the United Nations that same year.

It became a republic in Physiographically, the islands represent an extension of the South American mainland. The outstanding physical feature of the island of Trinidad is its Northern Range, a continuation of the coastal ranges of the Andes Mountains in Venezuela. The Northern Range is the site of a large of waterfalls, the most spectacular of which are the Blue Basin Falls and the Maracas Falls, both feet 91 metres high. On the southern side of the range, foothills with an elevation of approximately feet metres descend to the Northern Plain.

Running across the centre of the island, from southwest to northeast, is the Central Range, the highest point of which is Mount Tamana 1, feet [ metres]. A third row of mainly low hills, the Southern Range, adds further variety to the mostly flat or undulating surface of Trinidad.

Maps of trinidad and tobago

Rivers are numerous but short, the longest being the Ortoire in the south and the Caroni in the north. In low-lying areas swamps can be found; among them are the Caroni Swamp in the northwest and clusters along the eastern notably the Nariva Swamp and southern coasts. An oil-bearing belt occupies the southern one-fourth of the island, extending west into the Gulf of Paria and east into the Atlantic Ocean. In the southwest of the island is the deep asphalt deposit known as Pitch Lake.

The island of Tobago is physiographically an extension of the Venezuelan coastal range and the Northern Range of Trinidad. Its dominant feature is the Main Ridge, which runs from northeast to southwest, rising to heights of about 1, feet metres.

The ridge slopes more gently to the southwest onto a coral plain.

The coral formation has given rise to a of reefs, one of which, Buccoo Coral Reefis known for its marine life and is popular for scuba diving and snorkeling. Over the years, the reef and its marine life have suffered serious damage from pollution and tourist activity. Tobago has only a few short streams. The climate of Trinidad and Tobago is tropical, with high relative humidity. Temperatures vary ificantly between day and night, and the climate along the coast is tempered by sea breezes. The prevailing winds are the northeast trades. The islands are outside the main hurricane zone, but Tobago occasionally is struck by disastrous hurricanes e.

Vegetation zones are well defined on both islands.

In general, the highest areas coincide with the most luxuriant tropical rainforest vegetation. Cultivated estates or small settlements are established in clearings on the hills. In the dry season the hills are dotted with the orange flowers of the mountain immortelle, a large flowering tree that grows to a height of about 80 feet 25 metresand the flowers of the pink poui and yellow poui trees.

The Caroni Swampa bird sanctuary, is frequented by flocks of white flamingos and egrets as well as populations of scarlet ibis—a national bird. The Nariva Swamp, which has a varied bird and mammal population including the manatee, has similarly come under threat despite its protected status, especially from illegal rice farms. The greater bird of paradise was introduced to the island of Little Tobago, a bird sanctuary, but had disappeared by the early 21st century.

Where is trinidad and tobago in the world?

There are many endangered leatherback sea turtle nesting sites on the islands, the most notable of which is perhaps Matura Beach, on Trinidad. The forests on both Trinidad and Tobago are hunting grounds for small game, the most-sought-after being the pacaor lappe. Other animals include the agouti a short-haired, short-eared, rabbitlike rodentquenck collared peccary; a wild hogtattoo an armadilloprehensile-tailed porcupine, and iguana. Four main groups of reptiles are present on the islands: snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles one kind, the caiman, related to the alligators.

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Trinidad and tobago

Beach on the island of Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago. Britannica Quiz. Islands and Archipelagos. What are the islands of the Maldives made of? Sort out the facts about islands across the globe. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.

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Subscribe Now. Conservation workers monitoring the leatherback sea turtle population at Matura Beach, Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber. Load Next .

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Trinidad and Tobago is one of the wealthiest countries in the Caribbean, thanks to its large reserves of oil and gas, the exploitation of which dominates its economy.


Located just a few miles off the South American continent, Trinidad and Tobago are hilly islands with a few mountains of note.


Time zone: 8 A.